Warning : Secondary Groups in RHEL6

RHEL6 does seem to exhibit some caching issue with secondary groups:

 

New features in ESXi 5.0, 4.1 vs 4.0

New features highlighted:

Features in ESXi 4.0

New Features in ESXi 4.1

New Features in ESXi 5.0

Quick way to see how Red Hat EL 6 sssd looks up entries

Start sssd with “-i -d 5” option, and look for entries like “has value” :

[root@rhel60ad ~]# sssd -i -d 5

(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_entry_usn has value (null)
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_rootdse_last_usn has value (null)
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_object_class has value person
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_name has value sAMAccountName
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_pwd has value userPassword
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_uid_number has value uidNumber
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_gid_number has value gidNumber
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_gecos has value gecos
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_home_directory has value unixHomeDirectory
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_shell has value loginShell
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_principal has value userPrincipalName
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_fullname has value cn
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_member_of has value memberOf
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_uuid has value nsUniqueId
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_modify_timestamp has value modifyTimestamp
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_shadow_last_change has value shadowLastChange
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_shadow_min has value shadowMin
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_shadow_max has value shadowMax
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_shadow_warning has value shadowWarning
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_shadow_inactive has value shadowInactive
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_shadow_expire has value shadowExpire
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_shadow_flag has value shadowFlag
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_krb_last_pwd_change has value krbLastPwdChange
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_user_krb_password_expiration has value krbPasswordExpiration
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_pwd_attribute has value pwdAttribute
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_group_object_class has value group
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_group_name has value sAMAccountName
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_group_pwd has value userPassword
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_group_gid_number has value gidNumber
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_group_member has value member
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_group_uuid has value nsUniqueId
(Fri Aug 12 18:07:21 2011) [sssd[be[AD]]] [sdap_get_map] (5): Option ldap_group_modify_timestamp has value modifyTimestamp

 

Authenticating UNIX/Linux to Windows 2008R2. Part 6 : Single Sign On and final thoughts

Putting it all together: Single Sign On

Once clients have keytab files, we can now trust the KDC. This means that GSSAPI will work, and we can ssh, or telnet, or login from box to box without further authentication.

eg:

-sh-3.2$ hostname
rhel5host1.example.com
-sh-3.2$ kinit
Password for unix1@EXAMPLE.COM:
-sh-3.2$ ssh rhel6host1.example.com
Last login: Fri Aug 12 17:19:11 2011 from rhel5host1.example.com
-sh-4.1$ exit
logout
Connection to rhel6host1.example.com closed.
-sh-3.2$ ssh sol10host1.example.com
Last login: Fri Aug 12 17:11:40 2011 from rhel6host1.exam
Oracle Corporation      SunOS 5.10      Generic Patch   January 2005
$ exit
Connection to sol10host1.example.com closed.

and this will work from Windows Putty.exe too:

Still to do

I can’t get Secondary Groups in Red Hat 6 or Solaris 10 to work. This maybe due to the format that users are displayed in LDAP:

Red Hat 5.6

-sh-3.2$ id -a unix2
uid=10001(unix2) gid=10000(unixgrp1) groups=10000(unixgrp1),10001(unixgrp2)

Red Hat 6

-sh-4.1$ id -a unix2
uid=10001(unix2) gid=10000(unixgrp1) groups=10000(unixgrp1)

Solaris

$ id -a unix2
uid=10001(unix2) gid=10000(unixgrp1) groups=10000(unixgrp1)

Windows LDAP Entry:

Windows stores secondary group information in two locations, in the group, and in the user record.  The group record contains an attribute field, memberUid, and the user record contains an attribute field msSFU30PosixMemberOf, the latter of which is specified in full distinguished name format.

Group Record:

ldapsearch -h adserver -D "cn=ldapsearch,cn=Users,dc=example,dc=com" \
-w ld@p53arch -b "dc=example,dc=com" "cn=unixgrp2"
version: 1
dn: CN=unixgrp2,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: group
cn: unixgrp2
distinguishedName: CN=unixgrp2,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
instanceType: 4
whenCreated: 20110811002931.0Z
whenChanged: 20110811002943.0Z
uSNCreated: 21285
uSNChanged: 21292
name: unixgrp2
objectGUID:: w+OU4CAOHUy5UiN/lnCa6w==
objectSid:: AQUAAAAAAAUVAAAA9P+gsh3KJO48P5XaWwQAAA==
sAMAccountName: unixgrp2
sAMAccountType: 268435456
groupType: -2147483646
objectCategory: CN=Group,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=example,DC=com
dSCorePropagationData: 16010101000000.0Z
msSFU30Name: unixgrp2
msSFU30NisDomain: example
msSFU30PosixMember: CN=unix2,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
gidNumber: 10001
memberUid: unix2
Unfollowed continuation reference(s):
ldap://ForestDnsZones.example.com/DC=ForestDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com
Unfollowed continuation reference(s):
ldap://DomainDnsZones.example.com/DC=DomainDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com
Unfollowed continuation reference(s):
ldap://example.com/CN=Configuration,DC=example,DC=com

User Record:

bash-3.00# ldapsearch -h adserver -D "cn=ldapsearch,cn=Users,dc=example,dc=com" \
-w ld@p53arch -b "dc=example,dc=com" "cn=unix2"
version: 1
dn: CN=unix2,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: user
cn: unix2
givenName: unix2
distinguishedName: CN=unix2,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
instanceType: 4
whenCreated: 20110810133119.0Z
whenChanged: 20110810135707.0Z
displayName: unix2
uSNCreated: 21206
uSNChanged: 21225
name: unix2
objectGUID:: ofwjB4QV+0G9kLq65UVl5w==
userAccountControl: 512
badPwdCount: 0
codePage: 0
countryCode: 0
badPasswordTime: 0
lastLogoff: 0
lastLogon: 129574589275235806
pwdLastSet: 129574566798691363
primaryGroupID: 513
objectSid:: AQUAAAAAAAUVAAAA9P+gsh3KJO48P5XaWQQAAA==
accountExpires: 9223372036854775807
logonCount: 3
sAMAccountName: unix2
sAMAccountType: 805306368
userPrincipalName: unix2@example.com
objectCategory: CN=Person,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=example,DC=com
dSCorePropagationData: 16010101000000.0Z
lastLogonTimestamp: 129574582277635517
uid: unix2
msSFU30Name: unix2
msSFU30NisDomain: example
msSFU30PosixMemberOf: CN=unixgrp2,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
uidNumber: 10001
gidNumber: 10000
unixHomeDirectory: /home/unix2
loginShell: /bin/sh
Unfollowed continuation reference(s):
    ldap://ForestDnsZones.example.com/DC=ForestDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com
Unfollowed continuation reference(s):
    ldap://DomainDnsZones.example.com/DC=DomainDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com
Unfollowed continuation reference(s):
    ldap://example.com/CN=Configuration,DC=example,DC=com


Authenticating UNIX/Linux to Windows 2008R2. Part 5 : Kerberos Encryption Types

Background

There is a particular difficulty in Kerberos with Windows: What encryption type to use.

Encryption is used for both the ticket-granting-ticket and session tickets.

NB. I strongly suggest to use the a strong same encryption type for both, and to hard code that type at both ends.

In Windows, this is done through Group Policy:

To confirm whether an encyption type is supported, edit krb5.conf, and insert into the libdefaults section:

[libdefaults]
         default_tkt_enctypes = rc4-hmac
         default_tgs_enctypes = rc4-hmac
         permitted_enctypes = rc4-hmac

There exists a handy too from http://www.css-security.com/downloads/ called GetTicket , which can be used to test whether a Ticket-Granting-Ticket and Service-Ticket can be obtained.

default_tkt_enctypes controls the ticket granting ticket, and default_tgs_enctypes controls the service ticket.

Typical Errors

Poor Granting Ticket (default_tkt_enctypes):

# /opt/cssi/gettkt_2.3.2/bin/css_gettkt -v -p host/sol10host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM gettgt

v2.3.2 - February 2007

keytab:
credentials cache:
client principal:   host/sol10host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
service principal:
css_gettkt: Key table entry not found while getting initial credentials
# echo $?
181

Poor Service Ticket (default_tgs_enctypes):

# /opt/cssi/gettkt_2.3.2/bin/css_gettkt -v -s host/sol10host1.example.com getsrvtkt

v2.3.2 - February 2007

keytab:
credentials cache:
client principal:
service principal:  host/sol10host1.example.com
css_gettkt: No credentials found with supported encryption types while getting credentials
# echo $?
200

or

# /opt/cssi/gettkt_2.3.2/bin/css_gettkt -v -s host/sol10host1.example.com getsrvtkt

v2.3.2 - February 2007

keytab:
credentials cache:
client principal:
service principal:  host/sol10host1.example.com
css_gettkt: KDC has no support for encryption type while getting credentials
# echo $?
14

Finding an acceptable encryption type

There are a couple of Windows Knowledge Base articles which seem to suggest that whilst AES is a preferred encryption

http://support.microsoft.com/kb/833708

and

http://support.microsoft.com/kb/961302

Specifically, it says:

AES encryption cannot be used for Kerberos negotiation with cluster names; only up to RC4-HMAC is supported.

DES is frowned upon, due to lack of security (56 bits only). So, when generating host keytabs, I want to use RC4 (the only remaining option):

C:\>;ktpass /princ host/rhel5host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM \
/ptype KRB5_NT_PRINCIPAL /out C:\temp\rhel5host1.keytab /pass mypass \
/crypto RC4-HMAC-NT /mapuser EXAMPLE\rhel5host1
Targeting domain controller: adserver.example.com
Successfully mapped host/rhel5host1.example.com to RHEL5HOST1$.
WARNING: Account RHEL5HOST1$ is not a user account (uacflags=0x1021).
WARNING: Resetting RHEL5HOST1$'s password may cause authentication problems if RHEL5HOST1$ is being used as a server.

Reset RHEL5HOST1$'s password [y/n]?  y
Password succesfully set!
WARNING: pType and account type do not match. This might cause problems.
Key created.
Output keytab to C:\temp\rhel5host1.keytab:
Keytab version: 0x502
keysize 72 host/rhel5host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM ptype 1 (KRB5_NT_PRINCIPAL) vno
3 etype 0x17 (RC4-HMAC) keylength 16 (0xe0c32cda6f6ecc163f442d002bba3daf)

# kinit -k
# klist -ke
Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5.keytab
KVNO Principal
---- --------------------------------------------------------------------------
3 host/rhel5host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (ArcFour with HMAC/md5)

Authenticating UNIX/Linux to Windows 2008R2. Part 4 : RHEL 6.0

Background

Continuation of setting up LDAP/Kerberos clients to use Windows 2008R2 Server as the “source of truth”.

See the previous blog , for the steps for how Windows was set up.

Installation of RHEL6.0

      1. Create a Red Hat Linux 6 Kickstart configuration:
        install
        text
        reboot
        cdrom
        lang en_US.UTF-8
        keyboard us
        network --device eth0 --bootproto dhcp
        rootpw password
        firewall --disabled
        authconfig --enableshadow --passalgo=sha512 --enablefingerprint
        selinux --disabled
        timezone --utc Australia/Melbourne
        bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="crashkernel=auto crashkernel=auto rhgb quiet"
        clearpart --all --initlabel --drives=sda
        part /boot --fstype ext4 --size=500 --ondisk=sda
        part pv.1 --grow --size=1 --ondisk=sda
        volgroup vg_rhel6 --pesize=4096 pv.1
        logvol / --fstype ext4 --name=lv_root --vgname=vg_rhel6 --grow -size=1024
        logvol swap --name=lv_swap --vgname=vg_rhel6 --grow --size=1024 --maxsize=2048
        %packages
        @Base
        @Core
        @base
        openldap-clients
        sssd
        sssd-client
        krb5-workstation
      2. Save this file on a VFAT/FAT floppy disk as ks.cfg
      3. Create a Red Hat Linux 5 x64 VM, with the following configuration:
        1. Custom Config, VMware Workstation 6.5 compatible
        2. I will install the operating system later.
        3. Guest OS : Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 64-bit (RHEL6 not listed yet)
        4. VM Name: “rhel6host1”
        5. 1 Processor, 1 Core per Processor
        6. 1024MB Memory
        7. Use Host-Only Networking
        8. IDE Controller type: ATAPI
        9. SCSI Controller type: LSI Logic
        10. Disk: Create a new virtual disk, SCSI, Maximum Disk size, 10GB, Store as Single File, rhel6host1.vmdk (on an NTFS filesystem).
        11. Insert the Red Hat installer CD (Red Hat 5 Update 6)
        12. Power on and Boot from CD.
        13. Enter the following command line arguments:
          linux ks=floppy://ks.cfg
        14. Install VMware Tools:
          # mount -o ro /dev/cdrom /mnt
          # cp /mnt/VMware* /tmp
          # umount /mnt
          # cd /tmp
          # tar xfz VMware*
          # cd vmware-tools-distrib
          # ./vmware-install.pl -d
          # vmware-toolbox-cmd timesync enable
          Enabled
        15. Reconfigure the VM to use static IP addresses, and set the hostname, and DNS parameters
          # system-config-network-tui
          # service network restart

Plan of attack (in order):

        1. Get ldapsearch working with simple bind, unencrypted
        2. Configure LDAP with sssd
        3. Verify LDAP works with getent(1), id(1), etc
        4. Export the Root CA cert from Windows to UNIX
        5. Check the CA cert works with OpenSSL
        6. Import the CA cert
        7. Get LDAPS working with ldapsearch
        8. Change sssd to use LDAPS rather than LDAP
        9. Verify Kerberos works: Initially, without a host principal (krb5.keytab)
        10. Configure SSS to use Kerberos (edit /etc/sssd/sssd.conf)
        11. Configure PAM to use SSS
        12. Verify that services like login can use kerberised IDs and that the password works
        13. Create a host principal keytab in Windows. Import it into UNIX.
        14. Verify that kinit -k works
        15. Edit /etc/krb5/krb5.conf to include “verify_ap_req_nofail = true” in the [libdefaults] section. This will secure the UNIX box to prove it is talking with the bonefide KDC.
        16. Get Single-Sign-On working

1. Ldapsearch, unencrypted

ldapsearch on Linux is very similar but not identical to Solaris. Some of the command line options are subtly different. (eg the -x flag is required to use simple authentication, and URIs are supported)

Using the simple bind user, verify that lookups can be done using unencrypted LDAP. Not only will this return a record, but will also give the correct attribute name:

# ldapsearch -v -x -H ldap://adserver -D "CN=ldapsearch,CN=Users,DC=example,DC=com" \
-b "DC=example,DC=com" -w ld@p53arch -s sub "cn=unix1"
ldap_initialize( ldap://adserver )
filter: cn=unix1
requesting: All userApplication attributes
# extended LDIF
#
# LDAPv3
# base <DC=example,DC=com> with scope subtree
# filter: cn=unix1
# requesting: ALL
#

# unix1, UNIX, example.com
dn: CN=unix1,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: user
cn: unix1
distinguishedName: CN=unix1,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
instanceType: 4
whenCreated: 20110809102742.0Z
whenChanged: 20110810132335.0Z
uSNCreated: 20816
memberOf: CN=unixgrp1,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
uSNChanged: 21194
name: unix1
objectGUID:: 8dUSWOctkEaf5x7FkpXrgw==
userAccountControl: 512
badPwdCount: 0
codePage: 0
countryCode: 0
badPasswordTime: 129574586131856092
lastLogoff: 0
lastLogon: 129574589801917979
pwdLastSet: 129574562159321288
primaryGroupID: 513
objectSid:: AQUAAAAAAAUVAAAA9P+gsh3KJO48P5XaUAQAAA==
accountExpires: 9223372036854775807
logonCount: 72
sAMAccountName: unix1
sAMAccountType: 805306368
userPrincipalName: unix1@example.com
objectCategory: CN=Person,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=example,DC=com
dSCorePropagationData: 16010101000000.0Z
lastLogonTimestamp: 129574227701101793
uid: unix1
msSFU30Name: unix1
msSFU30NisDomain: example
uidNumber: 10000
gidNumber: 10000
unixHomeDirectory: /home/unix1
loginShell: /bin/sh

# search reference
ref: ldap://ForestDnsZones.example.com/DC=ForestDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com

# search reference
ref: ldap://DomainDnsZones.example.com/DC=DomainDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com

# search reference
ref: ldap://example.com/CN=Configuration,DC=example,DC=com

# search result
search: 2
result: 0 Success

# numResponses: 5
# numEntries: 1
# numReferences: 3

2. Configure LDAP with sssd, unencrypted

In RHEL 6, sssd is used to configure LDAP. For now, disable the auth_provider until LDAP is working. NB. With this, I have been unable to get secondary groups to work.

/etc/sss/sssd.conf:

[sssd]
config_file_version = 2
reconnection_retries = 3
sbus_timeout = 30
services = nss, pam
domains = EXAMPLE.COM

[nss]
filter_groups = root
filter_users = root
reconnection_retries = 3

[pam]
reconnection_retries = 3

[domain/EXAMPLE.COM]
description = LDAP domain with AD server
enumerate = false
min_id = 1
id_provider = ldap
;;;; auth_provider = krb5
ldap_uri = ldap://adserver.example.com/
ldap_schema = rfc2307bis
ldap_user_search_base = dc=example,dc=com
ldap_group_search_base = dc=example,dc=com
ldap_default_bind_dn = CN=ldapsearch,CN=Users,DC=example,DC=com
ldap_default_authtok_type = password
ldap_default_authtok = ld@p53arch

ldap_user_object_class = user
ldap_user_name = sAMAccountName
ldap_user_uid_number = uidNumber
ldap_user_gid_number = gidNumber
ldap_user_home_directory = unixHomeDirectory
ldap_user_shell = loginShell
ldap_user_principal = userPrincipalName
ldap_user_member = msSFU30PosixMemberOf

ldap_group_object_class = group
ldap_group_name = sAMAccountName
ldap_group_gid_number = gidNumber
ldap_group_member = memberUid

; THIS IS REQUIRED, BECAUSE BY DEFAULT IN WINDOWS, THE REALM NAME IS LOWERCASE
ldap_force_upper_case_realm = true

2. Configure /etc/nsswitch.conf

The following lines should be changed to use sss after files:

passwd:     files sss
shadow:     files sss
group:      files sss

3. Verify getent(1) works

Now, Lookups should work:

# service sssd start # getent group unixgrp1
unixgrp1:*:10000:unix1
# getent passwd unix1
unix1:*:10000:10000:unix1:/home/unix1:/bin/sh
# id -a unix1
uid=10000(unix1) gid=10000(unixgrp1) groups=10000(unixgrp1)

4. Import the root CA Certificates

The .PEM format rootCA.cer file should be copied (probably with psftp.exe) to the RedHat system. For the purposes of this instruction it is saved in /root/rootCA.cer.

5. Verify that the certificate file is ok with OpenSSL

# openssl x509 -in /root/rootCA.cer -subject -issuer -purpose
subject= /DC=com/DC=example/CN=example-ADSERVER-CA
issuer= /DC=com/DC=example/CN=example-ADSERVER-CA
Certificate purposes:
SSL client : Yes
SSL client CA : Yes
SSL server : Yes
SSL server CA : Yes
Netscape SSL server : No
Netscape SSL server CA : Yes
S/MIME signing : Yes
S/MIME signing CA : Yes
S/MIME encryption : No
S/MIME encryption CA : Yes
CRL signing : Yes
CRL signing CA : Yes
Any Purpose : Yes
Any Purpose CA : Yes
OCSP helper : Yes
OCSP helper CA : Yes
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

The CA root certificate can be tested as follows:

# openssl s_client -connect adserver.example.com:636 -CAfile /etc/openldap/cacerts/rootCA.cer  < /dev/null
CONNECTED(00000003)
depth=1 /DC=com/DC=example/CN=example-ADSERVER-CA
verify return:1
depth=0 /CN=adserver.example.com
verify return:1
---
Certificate chain
 0 s:/CN=adserver.example.com
   i:/DC=com/DC=example/CN=example-ADSERVER-CA
---
Server certificate
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----
subject=/CN=adserver.example.com
issuer=/DC=com/DC=example/CN=example-ADSERVER-CA
---
Acceptable client certificate CA names
/DC=com/DC=example/CN=example-ADSERVER-CA
/CN=adserver.example.com
/C=US/O=VeriSign, Inc./OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority
/OU=Copyright (c) 1997 Microsoft Corp./OU=Microsoft Corporation/CN=Microsoft Root Authority
/DC=com/DC=microsoft/CN=Microsoft Root Certificate Authority
/CN=NT AUTHORITY
---
SSL handshake has read 2140 bytes and written 459 bytes
---
New, TLSv1/SSLv3, Cipher is AES128-SHA
Server public key is 2048 bit
Secure Renegotiation IS NOT supported
Compression: NONE
Expansion: NONE
SSL-Session:
    Protocol  : TLSv1
    Cipher    : AES128-SHA
    Session-ID: 0908000095B93DAB72C80378CB4A9A87C116CBFA47B3046953BDC5D0A123FBF9
    Session-ID-ctx:
    Master-Key: 605B7D5B698F92AE6350A8D98A9FFFBB3C19688060100C899F6447F097B2BEB132687079F0D05092612F462E458EDCA8
    Key-Arg   : None
    Krb5 Principal: None
    Start Time: 1313109018
    Timeout   : 300 (sec)
    Verify return code: 0 (ok)
---
DONE

6. Import the Root CA Certificate

The certificate should be copied into /etc/openldap/cacerts:

# cp /root/rootCA.cer /etc/openldap/cacerts
# cacertdir_rehash /etc/openldap/cacerts

7. Test ldapsearch works  with LDAPS

This line must be present in /etc/openldap/ldap.conf:

TLS_CACERTDIR /etc/openldap/cacerts

Now LDAPS searches can be performed:

# ldapsearch -v -x -H ldaps://adserver.example.com/ \
-D "CN=ldapsearch,CN=Users,DC=example,DC=com" -b "DC=example,DC=com" \
-w ld@p53arch -s sub "cn=unix1"
ldap_initialize( ldaps://adserver.example.com/ )
filter: cn=unix1
requesting: All userApplication attributes
# extended LDIF
#
# LDAPv3
# base <DC=example,DC=com> with scope subtree
# filter: cn=unix1
# requesting: ALL
#

# unix1, UNIX, example.com
dn: CN=unix1,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: user
cn: unix1
distinguishedName: CN=unix1,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
instanceType: 4
whenCreated: 20110809102742.0Z
whenChanged: 20110810132335.0Z
uSNCreated: 20816
memberOf: CN=unixgrp1,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
uSNChanged: 21194
name: unix1
objectGUID:: 8dUSWOctkEaf5x7FkpXrgw==
userAccountControl: 512
badPwdCount: 0
codePage: 0
countryCode: 0
badPasswordTime: 129574586131856092
lastLogoff: 0
lastLogon: 129574589801917979
pwdLastSet: 129574562159321288
primaryGroupID: 513
objectSid:: AQUAAAAAAAUVAAAA9P+gsh3KJO48P5XaUAQAAA==
accountExpires: 9223372036854775807
logonCount: 72
sAMAccountName: unix1
sAMAccountType: 805306368
userPrincipalName: unix1@example.com
objectCategory: CN=Person,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=example,DC=com
dSCorePropagationData: 16010101000000.0Z
lastLogonTimestamp: 129574227701101793
uid: unix1
msSFU30Name: unix1
msSFU30NisDomain: example
uidNumber: 10000
gidNumber: 10000
unixHomeDirectory: /home/unix1
loginShell: /bin/sh

# search reference
ref: ldaps://ForestDnsZones.example.com/DC=ForestDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com

# search reference
ref: ldaps://DomainDnsZones.example.com/DC=DomainDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com

# search reference
ref: ldaps://example.com/CN=Configuration,DC=example,DC=com

# search result
search: 2
result: 0 Success

# numResponses: 5
# numEntries: 1
# numReferences: 3
#

NB. Fully qualified host names must be used, since those names are in ther certifcate. Short host names won’t work:

# ldapsearch -v -x -H ldaps://adserver/ \
-D "CN=ldapsearch,CN=Users,DC=example,DC=com" -b "DC=example,DC=com" \
-w ld@p53arch -s sub "cn=unix1"
ldap_initialize( ldaps://adserver:636/??base )
ldap_sasl_bind(SIMPLE): Can't contact LDAP server (-1)

8. Change /etc/sss/sssd.conf to use LDAPS rather than LDAP

We already know that LDAP works. We need to change the mechanism from simple to simple over TLS. Again we also must be careful to use the FQDN:

Change/Add these lines:

ldap_uri = ldaps://adserver.example.com/
tls_cacertdir = /etc/openldap/cacerts
ldap_tls_reqcert = demand

Restart SSSD:

# # service sssd restart Stopping sssd:                                             [  OK  ] Starting sssd:                                             [  OK  ] 

We can verify that lookups are now working:

# getent passwd unix1
unix1:x:10000:10000:unix1:/home/unix1:/bin/sh
# getent group unixgrp1
unixgrp1:*:10000:
# id -a unix1
uid=10000(unix1) gid=10000(unixgrp1) groups=10000(unixgrp1)

And moreover, a tcpdump of port 389 will show no unencrypted traffic being used.

9. Verify that Kerberos works

Edit the kerberos krb5.conf file to specify the domain and REALM:

/etc/krb5.conf:

[logging]
 default = FILE:/var/log/krb5libs.log
 kdc = FILE:/var/log/krb5kdc.log
 admin_server = FILE:/var/log/kadmind.log

[libdefaults]
 default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM
 dns_lookup_realm = false
 dns_lookup_kdc = false
 ticket_lifetime = 24h
 renew_lifetime = 7d
 forwardable = true

[realms]
 EXAMPLE.COM = {
  kdc = adserver.example.com
  admin_server = adserver.example.com
 }

[domain_realm]
 .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM
 example.com = EXAMPLE.COM

We can use a user’s ID and password to verify that kerberos works for user principals:

# kinit unix1@EXAMPLE.COM
Password for unix1@EXAMPLE.COM:
# klist -e
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: unix1@EXAMPLE.COM

Valid starting     Expires            Service principal
08/11/11 17:00:17  08/12/11 03:00:25  krbtgt/EXAMPLE.COM@EXAMPLE.COM
        renew until 08/18/11 17:00:17, Etype (skey, tkt): AES-256 CTS mode with 96-bit SHA-1 HMAC, AES-256 CTS mode with 96-bit SHA-1 HMAC

/etc/krb5.conf must be edited to specify the default realm. And “verify_ap_req_nofail = false” can be added to ignore missing host principals (/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab) until they have been set up.

Now for this to be useful, PAM must be configured to use kerberos

10. Configure SSS to use Kerberos

NB. This is really annoying. Whilst commands like “kinit, klist” use /etc/krb5.conf, SSSD on the other hand wants this within /etc/sssd/sssd.conf.

/etc/sssd/sssd.conf:

...
auth_provider = krb5
chpass_provider = krb5
krb5_realm = EXAMPLE.COM
krb5_kdcip = 192.168.102.10
...

11. Configure PAM to use SSS

Linux PAM is divided into multiple files.

Edit /etc/pam.conf to add the pam_krb5.so.1 library file at these locations:

/etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac

#%PAM-1.0
# This file is auto-generated.
# User changes will be destroyed the next time authconfig is run.
auth        required      pam_env.so
auth        sufficient    pam_fprintd.so
auth        sufficient    pam_unix.so nullok try_first_pass
auth        requisite     pam_succeed_if.so uid >= 500 quiet
auth        sufficient    pam_sss.so use_first_pass
auth        required      pam_deny.so

account     required      pam_unix.so
account     sufficient    pam_localuser.so
account     sufficient    pam_succeed_if.so uid < 500 quiet
account     [default=bad success=ok user_unknown=ignore] pam_sss.so
account     required      pam_permit.so

password    requisite     pam_cracklib.so try_first_pass retry=3 type=
password    sufficient    pam_unix.so sha512 shadow nullok try_first_pass use_authtok
password    sufficient    pam_sss.so use_authtok
password    required      pam_deny.so

session     optional      pam_keyinit.so revoke
session     required      pam_limits.so
session     [success=1 default=ignore] pam_succeed_if.so service in crond quiet use_uid
session     required      pam_mkhomedir.so skel=/etc/skel/ umask=0077
session     optional      pam_sss.so
session     required      pam_unix.so 

/etc/pam.d/password-auth-ac

#%PAM-1.0
# This file is auto-generated.
# User changes will be destroyed the next time authconfig is run.
auth        required      pam_env.so
auth        sufficient    pam_unix.so nullok try_first_pass
auth        requisite     pam_succeed_if.so uid >= 500 quiet
auth        sufficient    pam_sss.so use_first_pass
auth        required      pam_deny.so

account     required      pam_unix.so
account     sufficient    pam_localuser.so
account     sufficient    pam_succeed_if.so uid < 500 quiet
account     [default=bad success=ok user_unknown=ignore] pam_sss.so
account     required      pam_permit.so

password    requisite     pam_cracklib.so try_first_pass retry=3 type=
password    sufficient    pam_unix.so sha512 shadow nullok try_first_pass use_authtok
password    sufficient    pam_sss.o use_authtok
password    required      pam_deny.so

session     optional      pam_keyinit.so revoke
session     required      pam_limits.so
session     [success=1 default=ignore] pam_succeed_if.so service in crond quiet use_uid
session     required      pam_unix.so
session     optional      pam_sss.so

12. Verifying Services

Because the pam_mkhomedir.so library is included, the user’s home directory should be created automatically. Then check all the authentication methods (eg console access, ssh, etc)

Login:

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 6.0 (Santiago)
Kernel 2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 on an x86_64

rhel6host1 login: unix1
Password:
Creating directory '/home/unix1'.
Last login: Thu Aug 11 17:29:08 from localhost.localdomain
-sh-3.2$

SSH:

# ssh unix1@localhost
The authenticity of host 'localhost (::1)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 15:f2:5b:03:8e:38:fc:d0:ab:4b:06:89:ff:44:54:9b.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'localhost' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
unix1@localhost's password:
Last login: Thu Aug 11 17:31:22 2011 from localhost.localdomain
-sh-4.1$ exit
logout
Connection to localhost closed.

Changing Password:

-sh-4.1$ passwd
Changing password for user unix1.
Current Password:
New password:
Retype new password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

13. Create a host principal keytab in Windows.

To create a host keytab in Windows, first a computer account must exist (this was created in the previous blog). Then create a host principal mapped to that user.

NB. Keytabs need to use the fully qualified domain name.

NB. Keytabs must use encryption which is supported by both ends.

Suggestion: Either use /crypto all, or a known cryptosystem which is supported (eg AES256-SHA1).

There is a Security Policy, which has a checkbox list of all the Supported types:

Security Settings -> Local Policies -> Security Options -> Network Security: Configure encryption types allowed for Kerberos
DES_CBC_CRC
DES_CBC_MD5
RC4_HMAC_MD5
AES128_HMAC_SHA1
AES256_HMAC_SHA1
Future Encryption Types

eg (line split for easy reading)

C:\>ktpass /princ host/rhel6host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM \
/ptype KRB5_NT_PRINCIPAL /out C:\temp\rhel6host1.keytab /pass mypass \
/crypto AES256-SHA1 /mapuser EXAMPLE\rhel6host1
Targeting domain controller: adserver.example.com
Successfully mapped host/rhel6host1.example.com to RHEL6HOST1$.
WARNING: Account RHEL6HOST1$ is not a user account (uacflags=0x1021).
WARNING: Resetting RHEL6HOST1$'s password may cause authentication problems if R
HEL6HOST1$ is being used as a server.

Reset RHEL6HOST1$'s password [y/n]?  y
Password succesfully set!
WARNING: pType and account type do not match. This might cause problems.
Key created.
Output keytab to C:\temp\rhel6host1.keytab:
Keytab version: 0x502
keysize 90 host/rhel6host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM ptype 1 (KRB5_NT_PRINCIPAL) v
no 3 etype 0x12 (AES256-SHA1) keylength 32 (0x9e2d5c7b1a6d18938d71a652144c33a64e
dd34c47382471a989621f40281dfd2)

This file can now be copied to /etc/krb5.keytab, and verified as follows:

# klist -ke
Keytab name: WRFILE:/etc/krb5.keytab
KVNO Principal
---- --------------------------------------------------------------------------
   3 host/rhel6host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (AES-256 CTS mode with 96-bit SHA-1 HMAC)
# kinit -k 

If kinit doesn’t complain, then principal keytab is working, however, this might not be the end of the story. If an encryption scheme is not allowed, the following message may occur:

Aug 11 11:09:22 localhost sshd[14627]: pam_krb5[14627]: TGT failed verification using keytab and key for ‘host/rhel5host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM’: Key table entry not found
Aug 11 11:09:22 localhost sshd[14627]: pam_krb5[14627]: authentication fails for ‘unix1’ (unix1@EXAMPLE.COM): Authentication failure (Success)
Aug 11 11:09:24 localhost sshd[14627]: Failed password for unix1 from 127.0.0.1 port 45476 ssh2

See This Blog for information on keytabs and encryption.

Authenticating UNIX/Linux to Windows 2008R2. Part 3 : RHEL 5.6

Background

Continuation of setting up LDAP/Kerberos clients to use Windows 2008R2 Server as the “source of truth”.

See the previous blog , for the steps for how Windows was set up.

Installation of RHEL5.6

      1. Create a Red Hat Linux 5 Kickstart configuration:
        install
        text
        reboot
        cdrom
        key --skip
        lang en_US.UTF-8
        keyboard us
        xconfig --disabled
        network --device eth0 --bootproto dhcp
        rootpw password
        firewall --disabled
        authconfig --useshadow --enablemd5
        selinux --disabled
        timezone --utc Australia/Melbourne
        bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="rhgb quiet"
        clearpart --all --initlabel --drives=sda
        part /boot --fstype ext3 --size=100 --ondisk=sda
        part pv.1 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sda
        volgroup vg_rhel56 --pesize=4096 pv.1
        logvol / --fstype ext3 --name=lv_root --vgname=vg_rhel56 --size=1024 --grow
        logvol swap --fstype swap --name=lv_swap --vgname=vg_rhel56 --size=1024 --grow --maxsize=2048
        
        %packages
        @base
        openldap-clients
      2. Save this file on a VFAT/FAT floppy disk as ks.cfg
      3. Create a Red Hat Linux 5 x64 VM, with the following configuration:
        1. Custom Config, VMware Workstation 6.5 compatible
        2. I will install the operating system later.
        3. Guest OS : Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 64-bit
        4. VM Name: “rhel5host1”
        5. 1 Processor, 1 Core per Processor
        6. 1024MB Memory
        7. Use Host-Only Networking
        8. IDE Controller type: ATAPI
        9. SCSI Controller type: LSI Logic
        10. Disk: Create a new virtual disk, SCSI, Maximum Disk size, 10GB, Store as Single File, rhel5host1.vmdk (on an NTFS filesystem).
        11. Insert the Red Hat installer CD (Red Hat 5 Update 6)
        12. Power on and Boot from CD.
        13. Enter the following command line arguments:
          linux ks=floppy://ks.cfg
        14. Install VMware Tools:
          # mount -o ro /dev/cdrom /mnt
          # cp /mnt/VMware* /tmp
          # umount /mnt
          # cd /tmp
          # tar xfz VMware*
          # cd vmware-tools-distrib
          # ./vmware-install.pl -d
          # vmware-toolbox-cmd timesync enable
          Enabled
        15. Reconfigure the VM to use static IP addresses, and set the hostname, and DNS parameters
          # system-config-network-tui
          # service network restart

Plan of attack (in order):

        1. Get ldapsearch working with simple bind, unencrypted
        2. Configure LDAP
        3. Verify LDAP works with getent(1), id(1), etc
        4. Export the Root CA cert from Windows to UNIX
        5. Check the CA cert works with OpenSSL
        6. Import the CA cert
        7. Get LDAPS working with ldapsearch
        8. Change LDAP to use LDAPS rather than LDAP
        9. Verify Kerberos works: Initially, without a host principal (krb5.keytab)
        10. Configure PAM to use Kerberos (edit /etc/pam.conf)
        11. Verify that services like login can use kerberised IDs and that the password works
        12. Create a host principal keytab in Windows. Import it into UNIX.
        13. Verify that kinit -k works
        14. Edit /etc/krb5/krb5.conf to include “verify_ap_req_nofail = true” in the [libdefaults] section. This will secure the UNIX box to prove it is talking with the bonefide KDC.
        15. Get Single-Sign-On working

1. Ldapsearch, unencrypted

ldapsearch on Linux is very similar but not identical to Solaris. Some of the command line options are subtly different. (eg the -x flag is required to use simple authentication, and URIs are supported)

Using the simple bind user, verify that lookups can be done using unencrypted LDAP. Not only will this return a record, but will also give the correct attribute name:

# ldapsearch -v -x -H ldap://adserver -D "CN=ldapsearch,CN=Users,DC=example,DC=com" \
-b "DC=example,DC=com" -w ld@p53arch -s sub "cn=unix1"
ldap_initialize( ldap://adserver )
filter: cn=unix1
requesting: All userApplication attributes
# extended LDIF
#
# LDAPv3
# base <DC=example,DC=com> with scope subtree
# filter: cn=unix1
# requesting: ALL
#

# unix1, UNIX, example.com
dn: CN=unix1,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: user
cn: unix1
distinguishedName: CN=unix1,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
instanceType: 4
whenCreated: 20110809102742.0Z
whenChanged: 20110810132335.0Z
uSNCreated: 20816
memberOf: CN=unixgrp1,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
uSNChanged: 21194
name: unix1
objectGUID:: 8dUSWOctkEaf5x7FkpXrgw==
userAccountControl: 512
badPwdCount: 0
codePage: 0
countryCode: 0
badPasswordTime: 129574586131856092
lastLogoff: 0
lastLogon: 129574589801917979
pwdLastSet: 129574562159321288
primaryGroupID: 513
objectSid:: AQUAAAAAAAUVAAAA9P+gsh3KJO48P5XaUAQAAA==
accountExpires: 9223372036854775807
logonCount: 72
sAMAccountName: unix1
sAMAccountType: 805306368
userPrincipalName: unix1@example.com
objectCategory: CN=Person,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=example,DC=com
dSCorePropagationData: 16010101000000.0Z
lastLogonTimestamp: 129574227701101793
uid: unix1
msSFU30Name: unix1
msSFU30NisDomain: example
uidNumber: 10000
gidNumber: 10000
unixHomeDirectory: /home/unix1
loginShell: /bin/sh

# search reference
ref: ldap://ForestDnsZones.example.com/DC=ForestDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com

# search reference
ref: ldap://DomainDnsZones.example.com/DC=DomainDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com

# search reference
ref: ldap://example.com/CN=Configuration,DC=example,DC=com

# search result
search: 2
result: 0 Success

# numResponses: 5
# numEntries: 1
# numReferences: 3

2. Configure LDAP, unencrypted

LDAP on Linux is configured by using /etc/ldap.conf and /etc/openldap/ldap.conf.

The /etc/openldap/ldap.conf file is used for searching with ldapsearch (eg the location of keys is required in this file) . /etc/ldap.conf is used for lookups. Confusing.

1. Configure /etc/ldap.conf

uri ldap://adserver/
ldap_version 3
binddn CN=ldapsearch,CN=Users,DC=example,DC=com
bindpw ld@p53arch
scope sub
timelimit 30
bind_timelimit 30
bind_policy hard
idle_timelimit 3600
pam_password clear

nss_base_passwd dc=example,dc=com?sub
nss_base_group dc=example,dc=com?sub
nss_base_shadow dc=example,dc=com?sub

# User Stuff:
pam_filter objectclass=user
nss_map_objectclass posixAccount user
nss_map_objectclass shadowAccount user
nss_map_attribute uid sAMAccountName
nss_map_attribute homeDirectory unixHomeDirectory
pam_login_attribute sAMAccountName
nss_map_attribute shadowLastChange pwdLastSet

# Group Stuff:
nss_map_objectclass posixGroup group
nss_map_attribute gid gidNumber

2. Configure /etc/nsswitch.conf

The following lines should be changed to use ldap after files:

passwd:     files ldap
shadow:     files ldap
group:      files ldap

3. Verify getent(1) works

Now, Lookups should work:

# getent group unixgrp1
unixgrp1:*:10000:
# getent passwd unix1
unix1:*:10000:10000:unix1:/home/unix1:/bin/sh
# id -a unix1
uid=10000(unix1) gid=10000(unixgrp1) groups=10000(unixgrp1)

4. Import the root CA Certificates

The .PEM format rootCA.cer file should be copied (probably with psftp.exe) to the RedHat system. For the purposes of this instruction it is saved in /root/rootCA.cer.

5. Verify that the certificate file is ok with OpenSSL

# openssl x509 -in /root/rootCA.cer -subject -issuer -purpose
subject= /DC=com/DC=example/CN=example-ADSERVER-CA
issuer= /DC=com/DC=example/CN=example-ADSERVER-CA
Certificate purposes:
SSL client : Yes
SSL client CA : Yes
SSL server : Yes
SSL server CA : Yes
Netscape SSL server : No
Netscape SSL server CA : Yes
S/MIME signing : Yes
S/MIME signing CA : Yes
S/MIME encryption : No
S/MIME encryption CA : Yes
CRL signing : Yes
CRL signing CA : Yes
Any Purpose : Yes
Any Purpose CA : Yes
OCSP helper : Yes
OCSP helper CA : Yes
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

The CA root certificate can be tested as follows:

# openssl s_client -connect adserver.example.com:636 -CAfile /etc/openldap/cacerts/rootCA.cer  < /dev/null
CONNECTED(00000003)
depth=1 /DC=com/DC=example/CN=example-ADSERVER-CA
verify return:1
depth=0 /CN=adserver.example.com
verify return:1
---
Certificate chain
 0 s:/CN=adserver.example.com
   i:/DC=com/DC=example/CN=example-ADSERVER-CA
---
Server certificate
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----
subject=/CN=adserver.example.com
issuer=/DC=com/DC=example/CN=example-ADSERVER-CA
---
Acceptable client certificate CA names
/DC=com/DC=example/CN=example-ADSERVER-CA
/CN=adserver.example.com
/C=US/O=VeriSign, Inc./OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority
/OU=Copyright (c) 1997 Microsoft Corp./OU=Microsoft Corporation/CN=Microsoft Root Authority
/DC=com/DC=microsoft/CN=Microsoft Root Certificate Authority
/CN=NT AUTHORITY
---
SSL handshake has read 2140 bytes and written 459 bytes
---
New, TLSv1/SSLv3, Cipher is AES128-SHA
Server public key is 2048 bit
Secure Renegotiation IS NOT supported
Compression: NONE
Expansion: NONE
SSL-Session:
    Protocol  : TLSv1
    Cipher    : AES128-SHA
    Session-ID: 0908000095B93DAB72C80378CB4A9A87C116CBFA47B3046953BDC5D0A123FBF9
    Session-ID-ctx:
    Master-Key: 605B7D5B698F92AE6350A8D98A9FFFBB3C19688060100C899F6447F097B2BEB132687079F0D05092612F462E458EDCA8
    Key-Arg   : None
    Krb5 Principal: None
    Start Time: 1313109018
    Timeout   : 300 (sec)
    Verify return code: 0 (ok)
---
DONE

6. Import the Root CA Certificate

The certificate should be copied into /etc/openldap/cacerts:

# cp /root/rootCA.cer /etc/openldap/cacerts
# cacertdir_rehash /etc/openldap/cacerts 

7. Test ldapsearch works  with LDAPS

This line must be present in /etc/openldap/ldap.conf:

TLS_CACERTDIR /etc/openldap/cacerts

Now LDAPS searches can be performed:

# ldapsearch -v -x -H ldaps://adserver.example.com/ \
-D "CN=ldapsearch,CN=Users,DC=example,DC=com" -b "DC=example,DC=com" \
-w ld@p53arch -s sub "cn=unix1"
ldap_initialize( ldaps://adserver.example.com/ )
filter: cn=unix1
requesting: All userApplication attributes
# extended LDIF
#
# LDAPv3
# base <DC=example,DC=com> with scope subtree
# filter: cn=unix1
# requesting: ALL
#

# unix1, UNIX, example.com
dn: CN=unix1,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: user
cn: unix1
distinguishedName: CN=unix1,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
instanceType: 4
whenCreated: 20110809102742.0Z
whenChanged: 20110810132335.0Z
uSNCreated: 20816
memberOf: CN=unixgrp1,OU=UNIX,DC=example,DC=com
uSNChanged: 21194
name: unix1
objectGUID:: 8dUSWOctkEaf5x7FkpXrgw==
userAccountControl: 512
badPwdCount: 0
codePage: 0
countryCode: 0
badPasswordTime: 129574586131856092
lastLogoff: 0
lastLogon: 129574589801917979
pwdLastSet: 129574562159321288
primaryGroupID: 513
objectSid:: AQUAAAAAAAUVAAAA9P+gsh3KJO48P5XaUAQAAA==
accountExpires: 9223372036854775807
logonCount: 72
sAMAccountName: unix1
sAMAccountType: 805306368
userPrincipalName: unix1@example.com
objectCategory: CN=Person,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=example,DC=com
dSCorePropagationData: 16010101000000.0Z
lastLogonTimestamp: 129574227701101793
uid: unix1
msSFU30Name: unix1
msSFU30NisDomain: example
uidNumber: 10000
gidNumber: 10000
unixHomeDirectory: /home/unix1
loginShell: /bin/sh

# search reference
ref: ldaps://ForestDnsZones.example.com/DC=ForestDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com

# search reference
ref: ldaps://DomainDnsZones.example.com/DC=DomainDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com

# search reference
ref: ldaps://example.com/CN=Configuration,DC=example,DC=com

# search result
search: 2
result: 0 Success

# numResponses: 5
# numEntries: 1
# numReferences: 3
#

NB. Fully qualified host names must be used, since those names are in ther certifcate. Short host names won’t work:

# ldapsearch -v -x -H ldaps://adserver/ \
-D "CN=ldapsearch,CN=Users,DC=example,DC=com" -b "DC=example,DC=com" \
-w ld@p53arch -s sub "cn=unix1"
ldap_initialize( ldaps://adserver/ )
ldap_bind: Can't contact LDAP server (-1)
        additional info: TLS: hostname does not match CN in peer certificate

8. Change /etc/ldap.conf to use LDAPS rather than LDAP

We already know that LDAP works. We need to change the mechanism from simple to simple over TLS. Again we also must be careful to use the FQDN:

Change/Add these lines:

uri ldaps://adserver.example.com/
tls_cacertdir /etc/openldap/cacerts

We can verify that lookups are now working:

# getent passwd unix1
unix1:x:10000:10000:unix1:/home/unix1:/bin/sh
# getent group unixgrp1
unixgrp1:*:10000:
# id -a unix1
uid=10000(unix1) gid=10000(unixgrp1) groups=10000(unixgrp1)

And moreover, a tcpdump of port 389 will show no unencrypted traffic being used.

9. Verify that Kerberos works

Edit the krb5.conf file to specify the domain and REALM:

/etc/krb5.conf:

[logging]
 default = FILE:/var/log/krb5libs.log
 kdc = FILE:/var/log/krb5kdc.log
 admin_server = FILE:/var/log/kadmind.log

[libdefaults]
 default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM
 dns_lookup_realm = false
 dns_lookup_kdc = false
 ticket_lifetime = 24h
 forwardable = yes
 verify_ap_req_nofail = false

[realms]
 EXAMPLE.COM = {
  kdc = adserver.example.com:88
  admin_server = adserver.example.com:749
  default_domain = example.com
 }

[domain_realm]
 .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM
 example.com = EXAMPLE.COM

[appdefaults]
 pam = {
   debug = false
   ticket_lifetime = 36000
   renew_lifetime = 36000
   forwardable = true
   krb4_convert = false
 }

We can use a user’s ID and password to verify that kerberos works for user principals:

# kinit unix1@EXAMPLE.COM
Password for unix1@EXAMPLE.COM:
# klist -e
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: unix1@EXAMPLE.COM

Valid starting     Expires            Service principal
08/11/11 10:32:29  08/11/11 20:32:31  krbtgt/EXAMPLE.COM@EXAMPLE.COM
        renew until 08/12/11 10:32:29, Etype (skey, tkt): AES-256 CTS mode with 96-bit SHA-1 HMAC, AES-256 CTS mode with 96-bit SHA-1 HMAC

Kerberos 4 ticket cache: /tmp/tkt0
klist: You have no tickets cached

/etc/krb5.conf must be edited to specify the default realm. And “verify_ap_req_nofail = false” can be added to ignore missing host principals (/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab) until they have been set up.

Now for this to be useful, PAM must be configured to use kerberos

10. Configure PAM to use Kerberos

Linux PAM is divided into multiple files.

Edit /etc/pam.conf to add the pam_krb5.so.1 library file at these locations:

/etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac

#%PAM-1.0
# This file is auto-generated.
# User changes will be destroyed the next time authconfig is run.
 auth        required      pam_env.so
 auth        sufficient    pam_unix.so nullok try_first_pass
 auth        requisite     pam_succeed_if.so uid >= 500 quiet
 auth        sufficient    pam_krb5.so use_first_pass
 auth        required      pam_deny.so

 account     required      pam_unix.so
 account     sufficient    pam_succeed_if.so uid < 500 quiet
 account     [default=bad success=ok user_unknown=ignore] pam_krb5.so
 account     required      pam_permit.so

 password    requisite     pam_cracklib.so try_first_pass retry=3
 password    sufficient    pam_unix.so md5 shadow nullok try_first_pass use_authtok
 password    sufficient    pam_krb5.so use_authtok
 password    required      pam_deny.so

 session     optional      pam_keyinit.so revoke
 session     required      pam_limits.so
 session     [success=1 default=ignore] pam_succeed_if.so service in crond quiet use_uid
 session     required      pam_unix.so
 session     optional      pam_krb5.so
 session     required      pam_mkhomedir.so skel=/etc/skel/ umask=0077

11. Verifying Services

Because the pam_mkhomedir.so library is included, the user’s home directory should be created automatically. Then check all the authentication methods (eg console access, ssh, etc)

Login:

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 5.6 (Tikanga)
Kernel 2.6.18-238.el5 on an x86_64

rhel5host1 login: unix1
Password:
Creating directory '/home/unix1'.
Last login: Thu Aug 11 10:58:42 on tty1
-sh-3.2$

SSH:

# ssh unix1@localhost
The authenticity of host 'localhost (127.0.0.1)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 8a:88:23:62:85:62:49:41:07:ab:6d:d2:90:a7:4c:bb.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'localhost' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
unix1@localhost's password:
Last login: Thu Aug 11 11:00:53 2011
-sh-3.2$ exit

12. Create a host principal keytab in Windows.

To create a host keytab in Windows, first a computer account must exist (this was created in the previous blog). Then create a host principal mapped to that user.

NB. Keytabs need to use the fully qualified domain name.

NB. Keytabs must use encryption which is supported by both ends.

Suggestion: Either use /crypto all, or a known cryptosystem which is supported (eg AES256-SHA1).

There is a Security Policy, which has a checkbox list of all the Supported types:

Security Settings -> Local Policies -> Security Options -> Network Security: Configure encryption types allowed for Kerberos
DES_CBC_CRC
DES_CBC_MD5
RC4_HMAC_MD5
AES128_HMAC_SHA1
AES256_HMAC_SHA1
Future Encryption Types

eg (line split for easy reading)

C:\>ktpass /princ host/rhel5host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM \
/ptype KRB5_NT_PRINCIPAL /out C:\temp\rhel5host1.keytab /pass mypass \
/crypto AES256-SHA1 /mapuser EXAMPLE\rhel5host1
Targeting domain controller: adserver.example.com
Successfully mapped host/rhel5host1.example.com to RHEL5HOST1$.
WARNING: Account RHEL5HOST1$ is not a user account (uacflags=0x1021).
WARNING: Resetting RHEL5HOST1$'s password may cause authentication problems if R
HEL5HOST1$ is being used as a server.

Reset RHEL5HOST1$'s password [y/n]?  y
Password succesfully set!
WARNING: pType and account type do not match. This might cause problems.
Key created.
Output keytab to C:\temp\rhel5host1.keytab:
Keytab version: 0x502
keysize 90 host/rhel5host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM ptype 1 (KRB5_NT_PRINCIPAL) v
no 3 etype 0x12 (AES256-SHA1) keylength 32 (0x620811baa774cc27f00f95152c7a92f8c4
f0a1faa00f532391dbc7ad394fecb4)

This file can now be copied to /etc/krb5.keytab, and verified as follows:

# klist -ke
Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5.keytab
KVNO Principal
---- --------------------------------------------------------------------------
   3 host/rhel5host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (AES-256 CTS mode with 96-bit SHA-1 HMAC)
# kinit -k 

If kinit doesn’t complain, then principal keytab is working, however, this might not be the end of the story. If an encryption scheme is not allowed, the following message may occur:

Aug 11 11:09:22 localhost sshd[14627]: pam_krb5[14627]: TGT failed verification using keytab and key for ‘host/rhel5host1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM’: Key table entry not found
Aug 11 11:09:22 localhost sshd[14627]: pam_krb5[14627]: authentication fails for ‘unix1’ (unix1@EXAMPLE.COM): Authentication failure (Success)
Aug 11 11:09:24 localhost sshd[14627]: Failed password for unix1 from 127.0.0.1 port 45476 ssh2

See This Blog for information on keytabs and encryption.